Orginalliteratur zum Thema

1. Handelsman L, Cochrane KJ, Aronson MJ, Ness R, Rubinstein KJ, Kanof PD: Two new rating scales for opiate withdrawal. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1987; 13: 293-308.

2. Kienbaum P, Thürauf N, Michel M, Scherbaum N, Gastpar M, Peters J: Profound increase in epinephrine concentration in plasma and cardivascular stimulation after µ-opioid receptor blockade in opioid-addicted patients during barbiturate-induced anesthesia for acute detoxification. Anesthesiology 1998; 88: 1154-1161.

3. Kleber HD: Opioids - detoxification. In: Galanter M, Kleber HD: Textbook of substance abuse treatment. Washington, London: American Psychiatric Press, 1994, 191-208.

4. Legarda JL, Gossop M: A 24-h inpatient detoxification treatment for heroin addicts: a preliminary investigation. Drug Alcohol Depend 1994; 35: 91-93.

5. Loimer N, Schmid RW, Presslich O, Lenz K: Continuous naloxone administration suppresses opiate withdrawal symptoms in human opiate addicts during detoxification treatment. J Psychiatr Res 1989; 23: 81-86.

7. Loimer N, Schmid R, Lenz K, Presslich O, Grünberger J: Acute blocking of naloxone-precipitate opiate withdrawal symptoms by methohexitone. Br J Psychiatry 1990; 157: 748-752.

8. Loimer N, Lenz K, Schmid R, Presslich O: Technique for greatly shortening the transition from methadone to naltrexone maintenance of patient addicted to opiates. Am J Psychiatry 1991; 148: 933-935.

9. Loimer N, Linzmayer L, Schmid R, Grünberger J: Similar efficacy of abrupt and gradual opiate detoxification. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1991; 17: 307-312.

10. Mattick RP: Are detoxification programmes effective? Lancet 1996; 347: 97-100.

11. O'Connor PG, Kosten TR: Rapid and ultrarapid detoxification techniques. JAMA 1998; 279: 229-234.

12. Pfab R, Hirtl C, Hibler A, Felgenheuer N, Chlistalla J, Zilker T: Der Antagonist-induzierte, Narkose-gestützte Opiat-Schnellentzug (AINOS). MMW 1996; 138: 781-786.

13. Scherbaum N, Klein S, Kaube H, Kienbaum P, Peters J, Gastpar M: Alternative strategies of opiate detoxification: Evaluation of the so-called ultra-rapid detoxification. Pharmacopsychiatry 1998; 31: 205-209.

14. Seoane A, Carrasco G, Cabre L, Puiggros A, Hernandez E, Alvarez M, Costa J, Molina R, Sobrepere G: Efficacy and safety of two new methods of rapid intravenous detoxification in heroin addicts previously treated without success. Br J Psychiatry 1997; 171: 340-345.

15. Spanagel R, Kirschke C, Tretter F, Holsboer F: Forced opiate withdrawal under anaesthesia augments and prolongs the occurrence of withdrawal signs in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 1998; 52: 251-256.

16. Tretter F: Von der Phantasie, die Sucht auszuschlafen. MMW 1996; 138: 26-27.

17. Tretter F, Burkhardt D, Bussello-Spieth B, Reiss J, Walcher S, Büchele W: Clini-cal experience with antagonist-induced opiate withdrawal under anaesthesia. Addiction 1998; 93: 269-275.

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